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Table 1 Advantages and disadvantages of laparoscopic and open PD (adapted from 14)

From: Robotic and laparoscopic surgery of the pancreas: an historical review

  Open Minimally Invasive
Advantages Standard and well-known Reduced blood loss
Operative Time Reduced pain
Operative Cost Reduced wound complications
Established training Reduced hospital stay
Tactile Feedback More rapid recovery
  Magnified view
  Computer enhanced motion
Disadvantages Blood loss New approach
Incisional pain Increased operating time
Wound morbidity Equipment cost
Hospital Stay Loss of haptic feedback
Recovery time Lack of training opportunities