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Table 2 Overview of the studies conducted using Sensor Technology

From: Assessment of frailty: a survey of quantitative and clinical methods

  Author Frailty Prameters Data Analyses Sensor Frailty Model Comparing Clinical Instrument
1 M.A Brodie et al. [27] Stair Ascent (ADL) Cohen’s Kappa, Four Fold Cross Validation Pendant Device (Barometer +Accelerometer) None  
2 J. Bellmunt et al. [28] ADL + Physical + Social Bland-Altman Analysis Rule-Based Approach Raspberry Pi, Industrial Sensor None  
3 D.J. Hewson et al.[11] Fried Phenotype None Tri-Axial Accelerometer In Smart Phone, Bathroom Scale, Grip Ball Fried Phenotype None
4 E. Gianaria et al. [19] Gait Patterns + Posture Index Pearson Coefficient Kinect None TFI
5 R. Jaber et al. [33] Fried Phenotype None Modified Bathroom Scale, Grip Ball, Doppler Sensor Fried Phenotype None
6 A. Chkeir et al. [10, 34] Balance + Fried Phenotype Kolmogorove-Smirnov Test, Mann Whitney U Test Balance Quality Tester, Dynamometer Fried Phenotype None
7 R. Ganea et al. [55] Posture Kinematics Nonparametric Statistical Analysis (Wilcoxon Matched Pair) Inertial Sensor (Two Accelerometers + Gyroscope) None Tinette Test
8 A.G. Mercant et al. [57] Trunk Kinematics Nonparametric Statistical Analysis (Mann-Whitney) and Cohen’s D IPhone 4 (Accelerometer + Gyroscope) None Fried Phenotype
9 A. Martinez-Ramirez et al. [42] Gait Parameters ANOVA, Tri-Axial Inertial Orientation Tracker None Modified Fried Phenotype
10 W. Zhang et al. [30] ADL (Chair Rise Peak Power) Spearman Correlation And Pearson Correlation Pendant Sensor None GFI
11 A.Martinez-Ramirez et al. [36] Balance Test Continuous Wavelet Transforms, PCA Tri-Axial Inertial Magnetic Sensor None Fried Phenotype
12 B.R. Greene et al. [63] Balance and Mobility (TUG, five times Si-St and Quiet Standing Test) ANOVA, support vector machine Classifier Inertial Sensor (Tri-Axial Accelerometer + Tri-axial Gyroscope) None Fried Phenotype
13 Y.C. Chang et al. [21] Weakness, weight, Slowness and Reaction Time, Functional Reach Strength, Reaction Time Balance Neural Networks, Sensitivity and Specificity E-Pad(Membrane Sensor), E-scale(LED + Wireless Unit), E-chair (Pressure Sensor + wireless Unit), E-Reach (Ultrasonic Distance Sensor), Fried Phenotype none
14 M. Schwenk et al. [51] Gait, Balance and Physical Activity Multimodal Logistic Regression Inertial Sensor Fried Phenotype  
15 N. Millor et al. [59] Range of Movement, Acceleration and Power from 30s Chair Stand Test and Gait Speed from 3m Walking Decision Tree, ANOVA Inertial Sensor None Fried Phenotype
16 N.N.Toosizadeh et al. [31] Elbow Flexion, and Extension (ADL) Statistical Analysis Inertial Sensor   Fried Phenotype