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Table 2 Nanomaterial-based delivery of oncolytic adenovirus. Nanomaterials with different attribute (cationic nanomaterials, hydrogels, and magnetic nanoparticles) can improve the local delivery efficiency of virus to tumor tissues. Table summarizes individual cases discussed in this review

From: Overcoming the limitations of locally administered oncolytic virotherapy

No. Nanomaterial Characteristics of nanomaterial Oncolytic adenovirus Therapeutic transgene Complexation Method Reference
1 deoxycholic acid-conjugated PEI (DA3) Cationic nanomaterial RdB-KOX Artificial transcriptional repressor zinc-finger protein specific to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promoter Electrostatic interaction [27]
2 mPEG-PEI-g-Arg-S-S-Arg-g-PEI-mPEG (PPSA) Cationic/bioreducible nanomaterial DWP418 Human relaxin Electrostatic interaction [24]
3 multidegradable bioreducible core-cross-linked PEI (rPEI) Cationic/bioreducible nanomaterial RdB/shMet Short hairpin RNA specific to c-Met Electrostatic interaction [29]
4 PEGylated paclitaxel conjugated to arginine grafted bioreducible polymer (APP) Cationic, bioreducible, and chemodrug-conjugated nanomaterial oAd-vp53 p53 variant that is resistant to p53 inactivation Electrostatic interaction [32]
5 lithium 3-[2-(perfluoroalkyl)ethylthio]propionate) & 25 kDa branched PEI (PEI-Mag2) Cationic/magnetic nanomaterial dl520 No therapeutic transgene Electrostatic interaction [33]
6 polybrene-modified nanoparticles (PB-Mag1) & silica-modified nanoparticle decorated with branched PEI (SO-Mag2) Cationic/magnetic nanomaterial dl520 No therapeutic transgene Electrostatic interaction [34]
7 PEGylated and cross-linked iron oxide nanoparticles (PCION) Cationic/magnetic nanomaterial HmT No therapeutic transgene Electrostatic interaction [35]
8 Injectable alginate gel Biodegradable gel DWP418 Human relaxin Gel encapsulation [36]
9 silk-elastin like protein polymer hydrogel (SELP hydrogel) Biodegradable gel Ad-C-Met Short hairpin RNA specific to c-Met Gel encapsulation [37]
10 in situ cross-linkable gelatin hydrogels using gelatin-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid (GHPA gel) Biodegradable gel oAd-TRAIL Secretable trimeric tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) Gel encapsulation [38]
11 in situ cross-linkable gelatin hydrogels using gelatin-hydroxyphenyl propionic acid (GHPA gel) Biodegradable gel RdB/IL-12/GMCSF Interleukin (IL)-12 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) Gel encapsulation [44]
12 gold nanorod (GNR) Laser-induced hyperthermia RdB-K35/KOX Artificial transcriptional repressor zinc-finger protein specific to VEGF promoter No complexation [50]