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Table 2 Literature reviews on the aetiology of DTI in transtibial prosthetic users

From: Exploring the role of transtibial prosthetic use in deep tissue injury development: a scoping review

Autor and yearObjectiveAetiological factorQualitative results
Mak et al. 2001 [40]Overview over current knowledge about biomechanics in TTAa sDeformation, impaired
lymphatic system,
- Skeletal movement and friction lead to soft tissue deformation during gait
- Stress and deformation affect cellular and tissue function mechanically and via impairment of ancillary systems
- Magnitude, direction, distribution, duration, loading rate are crucial
- Possible accumulative effect of repetitive stress
Mak et al. 2010 [9]Overview over tissue response to loadingDeformation, impaired lymphatic system, ischemia, ischemia-reperfusion- Immediate muscle damage by direct mechanical insult or over longer period by ischemia
- Reperfusion exacerbates damage by oxidative stress and inflammation
- Damage may accumulate if insufficient recovery time
Bader et al. 2019 [26]Analysis of bioengineering tools for device related soft tissue damageDeformation, lymphatic drainage, ischemia, ischemia reperfusion injury- Direct deformation, impaired lymphatic drainage, disrupted microvasculature and ischemia reperfusion as aetiological factors
- High inter-patient variability
  1. a Transtibial amputee