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Table 1 A summary of cooling methods applied to resistive wire-based magnets and their challenges

From: Approaches in cooling of resistive coil-based low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) systems for application in low resource settings

Author(s) Paper Title Conductor Type Cooling Mode Cooling Medium Closed/Open System Cooling Type Challenges/Future work
Gosselin & Bejan [40] Constructal-theory Network of Conducting Paths for Cooling a Heat Generating Volume   Conduction High thermal conductivity discs N/A   Need for liquid cooling at higher field strength
Tsai et al. [41] An Open-access, Very-low-field MRI System for Posture-dependent 3He Human Lung Imaging Square solid copper wire Convection Air Open   Need for liquid cooling at higher field strength
Gardner et al. [42] Production of a Uniform Magnetic Field by Means of an End-Corrected Solenoid Copper Ribbons Convection Water   Active/Forced Eddy currents from Aluminum cylinder
Redpath et al. [43] A Low Field NMR Imager for Clinical Use   Convection Water Open Active/Forced Use a closed system with recirculation of coolant
Lurie et al. [44] Design, Construction and Use of a Large-sample Field-cycled PEDRI Imager Copper sheets Convection Water   Active/Forced Explore cooling in the axial direction
Sciandrone et al. [45] Compact Low Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging Magnet: Design and Optimization Copper tape Convection Water Open Active/Forced Closed system with deionized water
Grafendorfer et al. [46] A 0.2 T Homogeneous Resistive Knee Magnet for Remotely Polarized MRI Solid copper wire Convection Water Closed Active/Forced Explore hollow conductors
Gilbert et al. [47] Design of Field-cycled Magnetic Resonance Systems for Small Animal Imaging   Convection Water Closed Active/Forced Decreased cooling efficiency from indirect contact of coil with coolant
Matter et al. [48] Rapid Polarizing Field Cycling in Magnetic Resonance Imaging Square hollow copper Convection Water   Active/Forced Pressure drop and possible corrosion in fluid channel
Alford et al. [49] Design and Construction of a Prototype High-Power Bo Insert Coil for Field-Cycled Imaging in Superconducting MRI Systems Square solid copper wire Convection Water Closed Active/Forced Direct cooling with deionized water for better cooling efficiency
Savukov et al. [50] Non-cryogenic Anatomical imaging in Ultra-Low Field Regime:
Hand MRI Demonstration
  Convection Air Open   Need to use forced air cooling when operational current is increased
Busch [51] Ultra-low Field MRI of Prostate Cancer using SQUID Detection Litz wire Convection Liquid Nitrogen   Passive Hotspots were formed
Hollow copper tubes Water Active/Forced Cool between pulses to minimize eddy currents
Lips et al. [52] Magnet Design with High Bo Homogeneity for Fast-Field Cycling NMR Applications   Convection Perfluoropolyether Closed Active/Forced  
Morgan et al. [53] A Readout Magnet for Prepolarized MRI   Convection Air   Passive Need for forced cooling at higher magnetic strengths
Bidinosti et al. [54] In Vivo NMR of Hyperpolarized 3He gas in Human Lung at Very Low Magnetic Fields Solid copper wire Convection Air   Passive Need for forced cooling at higher magnetic strengths
Sousa et al. [55] Design of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Fast Field Cycling Air Cored Magnet Copper bar/wire Convection Transformer oil Closed Active/Forced Heating of one end of coil due to direction of cooling.
Hilschenz et al. [56] Remote detected Low-Field MRI using an optically pumped atomic magnetometer combined with a liquid cooled pre-polarization coil Litz copper wire Convection Silicon Oil Closed Active/Forced Low flowrate
Highly viscous coolant
Lother et al. [57] Design of a mobile, homogeneous, and efficient electromagnet with a large field of view for neonatal low-field MRI Solid copper wire Convection Air Open Active Insufficient for higher field strengths
Obungoloch [58] Development of Ultra Low Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Diagnosis of Hydrocephalus in Developing Countries Solid copper wire Convection Air   Passive Need to apply forced cooling with increased currents