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Table 2 Cosine similarities (CS) values between EMG activities during the directional exertions (D1 to D8) and plantarflexion (PF) and the synergies reported in the literature during gait for both the healthy and stroke groups. Bold values indicate the highest cosine similarity index for each muscle synergy

From: Training muscle activation patterns of the lower paretic extremity using directional exertion improves mobility in persons with hemiparesis: a pilot study

  Synergy Direction of exertion
Group   D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 PF
Healthy C1 0.460 0.670 0.895 0.912 0.904 0.851 0.643 0.553 0.581
C2 0.520 0.564 0.440 0.425 0.577 0.634 0.467 0.497 0.935
C3 0.377 0.650 0.757 0.771 0.674 0.435 0.466 0.362 0.382
C4 0.947 0.814 0.264 0.299 0.291 0.414 0.927 0.951 0.392
Stroke C1 0.568 0.676 0.812 0.875 0.828 0.824 0.678 0.547 0.714
  C2 0.646 0.546 0.748 0.653 0.704 0.665 0.632 0.538 0.847
  C3 0.563 0.778 0.686 0.723 0.677 0.444 0.505 0.605 0.414
  C4 0.835 0.728 0.506 0.516 0.542 0.709 0.851 0.865 0.593